Sunday, 21 October 2012

معلومات عن الانتاج الحيواني العالمي.World Animal Production-Information

  • Animals consume one-third of the global cereal grain supply.
  • Total meat consumption in developing countries is projected to more than double by the year 2020, while, in developed countries, it is projected to increase no more and, in some cases, less than population growth .
  • Global demand for meat is projected to increase more than 60% of current consumption by 2020.
  • On a global basis, animals produce a kg of human food protein for each 1.4 kg of human-edible protein consumed. The biological value of protein in foods from animals is about 1.4 times that of foods from plants. Thus, diverting grains from animal production to direct human consumption would, in the long term, result in little increase in total food protein and would decrease average dietary quality and diversity.
  • Global demand for cereals for food and feed [over the next 20 years] also will increase, at an annual rate expected to be between 1.1 and 1.4%.
  • More than 50% of cropland is cultivated by draught animal power, while the use of manure is estimated to save the purchase of fertilizer worth $700 million to $800 million per year in irrigated systems in the humid tropics alone. In addition, manure provides cooking fuel, and animals are used for transporting food to markets.
  • On a global basis, foods of animal origin, including fish, provide about 17% of the energy and more than 35% of the dietary protein; however, this average masks large variations between countries.
  • Specialized livestock farms evolved in Europe and North America only in the last 50 years ...These types of farms produce more than 50% of the meat and more than 90% of the world's milk production...
  • Globally, humans still directly consume nearly two thirds of total cereal production, while pigs consume approximately 12%, dairy cows 9%, beef cattle 5%, meat chickens 5%, and laying hens 4%. Ruminants in particular also consume by-products of crop production that are inedible by humans.
  • Global average milk production per cow is currently only 10% of that in the highest-producing herds. Doubling the volume of milk produced without increasing the number of cows should be possible by improving all aspects of management, including nutrition, breeding, and disease control.
  • Animal proteins have higher digestibilities (96 to 98%) than most plant proteins (65 to 70%). Furthermore, the amino acid composition of animal proteins is superior to that of plants. The biological values of animal proteins range from 90 to 100, relative to egg protein-the reference protein set to 100 by convention-while values for plant proteins range from 50 to 70%. The bioavailabilities of important minerals (including calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, magnesium, and manganese) and vitamins (thiamin [B1], riboflavin [B2], niacin, pyridoxine [B6], and B12) are much higher in animal as opposed to most plant products.
  • Globally, 3.35 billion ha of land are grazed by livestock (Seré and Steinfeld, 1996. Most of this land is too arid, steep, rocky, or infertile to permit crop production and would produce no human food if not grazed by animals.
  • Grazing lands supply only about 23% of the world's beef production and 30% of the world's sheep and goat meat but, because they complement and make possible other livestock production systems, their importance is not fully indicated by the amount of meat produced directly from them.

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